“A Transition to Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery (LESS) Radical Prostatectomy: Human Cadaver Experimental and Initial Clinical Experience.”
Background and Purpose. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) represents a novel approach to abdominal surgery. Several applications have already been described. Drawbacks include limited range of motion and need for articulated instruments. Robotic technology could overcome such technical difficulties. We report our experience with LESS radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP) in a cadaver and LESS robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (LESS-RARP) in a human patient. Material and Methods. Standard laparoscopic instruments (SLI) and articulated laparoscopic instruments were used in the cadaveric LESS-RP. The da Vinci system was used in the LESS-RARP. Both procedures reproduced standard extraperitoneal laparoscopic prostatectomy as performed at Institut Montsouris. Control of the dorsal venous complex (DVC) and urethrovesical anastomosis (UVA) were key elements evaluated for feasibility. Results. Cadaveric model: Total operative time (TOT) was 160 minutes, with 5 minutes for the DVC (one stitch) and 35 minutes for the UVA (six stitches). Although articulated instruments were helpful in the operation, SLI remained essential for the procedure. Clinical experience: LESS-RARP was performed for T(1c) prostate cancer. TOT was 150 minutes, including 5 minutes for the DVC (one figure-of-eight stitch) and 30 minutes for the UVA (six interrupted stitches). Blood loss was 500 mL. Bilateral neurovascular preservation was performed, and results of final pathologic examination showed negative surgical margins. Conclusions. The human cadaver is an adequate model for LESS-RP, and LESS-RARP is feasible to be performed in the clinical arena. The synergy of robotic technology and LESS represents a new generation of surgery.
“Embryonic natural orifice transumbilical endoscopic surgery (E-NOTES) for advanced reconstruction: initial experience.”
Urology 73(1): 182-7.
OBJECTIVES: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery comprises intraabdominal surgery performed by way of natural orifices (ie, vagina, mouth). In a similar manner, the umbilicus provides an embryonic natural orifice that permits intraabdominal access. We report on the feasibility of performing single-port advanced laparoscopic reconstructive surgery by way of the umbilicus in 6 patients. We propose the terminology embryonic-natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (E-NOTES) for this novel surgical approach. METHODS: Through a single 1.5- to 3-cm intraumbilical incision and a novel, single-access port, we performed laparoscopic bilateral single-session Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty (2 patients, 4 procedures), ileal ureter (n = 1), and ureteroneocystostomy with a psoas hitch (n = 1). No extraumbilical skin incisions were used. A 2-mm Veress needle port, inserted through a skin needle puncture, was used to create the pneumoperitoneum and to selectively insert a needlescopic grasper to assist in suturing. RESULTS: All procedures were successful without the need for any additional laparoscopic ports. For the 2 patients undergoing bilateral pyeloplasty (including patient repositioning) and the 1 patient each undergoing ileal ureter and psoas-hitch ureteroneocystostomy, the operating time was 4.5, 6, 5, and 3 hours, blood loss was 100, 50, 75, and 50 mL, and the hospital stay was 1, 2, 3, and 2 days, respectively. No intraoperative or postoperative complications developed. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, we present the initial experience with advanced laparoscopic reconstruction through a single intraumbilical port. Additional refinement of this technology could lead to wider incorporation of single-port laparoscopy in clinical practice. Embryonic-natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery appears to be a promising new approach for select indications.
“Malfunction of da Vinci Robotic System-Disassembled Surgeon’s Console Hand Piece: Case Report and Review of the Literature.”
Recently, increasing numbers of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy have been performed at many centers. Although uncommon, malfunction of the da Vinci Surgical system represents a new and unique problem in urologic surgery. In this study, we report a rare case of a disassembled surgeon’s console hand piece because of a loose screw during robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
“Electromyographic response is altered during robotic surgical training with augmented feedback.” Judkins (2009).
J Biomech 42(1): 71-6.
There is a growing prevalence of robotic systems for surgical laparoscopy. We previously developed quantitative measures to assess robotic surgical proficiency, and used augmented feedback to enhance training to reduce applied grip force and increase speed. However, there is also a need to understand the physiological demands of the surgeon during robotic surgery, and if training can reduce these demands. Therefore, the goal of this study was to use clinical biomechanical techniques via electromyography (EMG) to investigate the effects of real-time augmented visual feedback during short-term training on muscular activation and fatigue. Twenty novices were trained in three inanimate surgical tasks with the da Vinci Surgical System. Subjects were divided into five feedback groups (speed, relative phase, grip force, video, and control). Time- and frequency-domain EMG measures were obtained before and after training. Surgical training decreased muscle work as found from mean EMG and EMG envelopes. Grip force feedback further reduced average and total muscle work, while speed feedback increased average muscle work and decreased total muscle work. Training also increased the median frequency response as a result of increased speed and/or reduced fatigue during each task. More diverse motor units were recruited as revealed by increases in the frequency bandwidth post-training. We demonstrated that clinical biomechanics using EMG analysis can help to better understand the effects of training for robotic surgery. Real-time augmented feedback during training can further reduce physiological demands. Future studies will investigate other means of feedback such as biofeedback of EMG during robotic surgery training.
“Robotic single-port transumbilical surgery in humans: Initial report.”
BJU International 103(3): 366-369.
OBJECTIVE: To describe our initial clinical experience of robotic single-port (RSP) surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The da Vinci® S robot (Intuitive, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) was used to perform radical prostatectomy (RP), dismembered pyeloplasty, and radical nephrectomy. A robot 12-mm scope and 5-mm robotic grasper were introduced through a multichannel single port (R-port, Advanced Surgical Concepts, Dublin, Ireland). An additional 5-mm or 8-mm robotic port was introduced through the same umbilical incision (2 cm) alongside the multichannel port and used to introduce robotic instruments. Vesico-urethral anastomosis and pelvi-ureteric anastomosis were successfully performed robotically using running intracorporeal suturing. RESULTS: All three RSP surgeries were performed through the single incision without adding extra umbilical ports or 2-mm instruments. For RP, the operative duration was 5 h and the estimated blood loss was 250 mL. The hospital stay was 36 h and the margins of resection were negative. For pyeloplasty, the operative duration was 4.5 h, and the hospital stay was 50 h. Right radical nephrectomy for a 5.5-cm renal cell carcinoma was performed in 2.5 h and the hospital stay was 48 h. The specimen was extracted intact within an entrapment bag through the umbilical incision. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. At 1 week after surgery, all patients had minimal pain with a visual analogue score of 0/10. CONCLUSIONS: Technical challenges of single-port surgery that may limit its widespread acceptance can be addressed by using robotic technology. Articulation of robotic instruments may render obsolete the long-held laparoscopic principles of triangulation especially for intracorporeal suturing. We report the initial series of robotic surgery through a single transumbilical incision. © 2008 The Authors.