“Treatment of local progression following radiotherapy.”
de Reijke, T. M. and T. Wiegel (2009).
European Journal of Cancer 45(SUPPL. 1): 140-147.
“Step and shoot IMRT to mobile targets and techniques to mitigate the interplay effect.”
Ehler, E. D. and W. A. Tomé (2009).
Physics in medicine and biology 54(13): 4311-4324.
The purpose of this work is to evaluate a method to mitigate temporal dose variation due to the interplay effect as well as investigate the effect of randomly varying motion patterns. The multi-leaf collimator (MLC) settings from 5, 9 and 11 field step and shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment plans with tumor motion of 1.53, 1.03 and 1.95 cm, respectively, were used. Static planar dose distributions were determined for each treatment field using the Planar Dose Module in the Pinnacle(3) treatment planning system. The MotionSIM XY/4D robotic diode array was used to recreate the tumor motion orthogonal to each treatment beam. Dose rate modulation was investigated as a method to mitigate temporal dose variation due to the interplay effect. Computer simulation was able to identify individual fields where interplay effects are greatest. Computer simulation and physical measurement have shown that temporal dose variation can be mitigated by the selection of the dose rate or by selective dose rate modulation within a given IMRT treatment field. Selective dose rate modulation within a given IMRT treatment field reduced temporal dose variation to levels comparable to whole field dose rate reduction, while also producing shorter radiation delivery times in six of the seven cases investigated. For the cases considered, the interplay effect did not appear to have a greater effect on hypofractionation compared to traditional fractionation even though fewer fractions were delivered. Randomized motion kernel variation was also considered. For this portion of the study, a nine field step and shoot IMRT configuration was considered with a 1.03 cm tumor motion rather than the five field case. In general, if the extent of the variant motion pattern was mostly contained within the target volume, limited impact on the temporal dose variation was observed. In cases where the variant motion kernels increasingly exceeded the target volume limits, increases in temporal dose variation were observed.
“The History of Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy.”
Lasak, J. M. and J. P. Gorecki (2009).
Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 42(4): 593-599.
Stereotactic neurosurgery originated from the pioneering work of Horsley and Clarke, who developed a stereotactic apparatus to study the monkey brain in 1908. Spiegel and Wycis applied this technology to the human brain in 1947, which ultimately lead to the development of multiple stereotactic neurosurgical devices during the 1950s. It was Lars Leksell of Sweden, however, who envisioned stereotactic radiosurgery. Leksell developed the gamma knife to treat intracranial lesions in a noninvasive fashion. His work stimulated worldwide interest and created the field of stereotactic radiosurgery. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
“Transumbilical laparoscopic urological surgery: Are special devices strictly necessary?”
Branco, A. W., W. Kondo, et al. (2009).
BJU International 104(8): 1136-1142.
Objective To evaluate the safety and feasibility of transumbilical laparoscopic surgery using conventional laparoscopic instruments and ports. Patients and methods Since January 2008 we have been using laparoscopic transumbilical procedures. Patient selection was determined by any situation, pathological or not, for which laparoscopy was deemed appropriate as the standard of care in our practice. Exclusion criteria included patients who had undergone multiple abdominal procedures. The Veress needle was placed through the umbilicus, to allow insufflation with carbon dioxide. A 10-mm trocar was placed in the peri-umbilical site for the laparoscope, followed by placing two additional 5-mm peri-umbilical trocars. The entire procedure was done using conventional laparoscopic instruments. At the end of surgery the trocars were removed and all three peri-umbilical skin incisions were united for specimen retrieval. Patients undergoing surgery using this approach were evaluated prospectively and data were collected during and after surgery for analysis. Results Six procedures were performed using this technique (three nephrectomies, one adrenalectomy, one ureterolithotomy and one retroperitoneal mass resection). The mean operative duration and blood loss were 70.5 min and 108.3 mL, respectively. There were no complications during surgery and no patients needed a blood transfusion. Analgesia comprised metamizole (1 g intravenous every 6 h) and ketoprofen (100 mg intravenous every 12 h). The time to first oral intake was 8 h and the mean hospital stay was 28 h. Conclusion Laparoscopic transumbilical surgery seems to be feasible and safe even using conventional laparoscopic instruments, and can be considered a potential alternative for traditional laparoscopic urological procedures. © 2009 BJU International.
“Novel magnetically guided intra-abdominal camera to facilitate laparoendoscopic single-site surgery: initial human experience.”
Cadeddu, J., R. Fernandez, et al. (2009).
Surgical Endoscopy 23(8): 1894-1899.
BACKGROUND: Magnetic anchoring guidance systems (MAGS) are composed of an internal surgical instrument controlled by an external handheld magnet and do not require a dedicated surgical port. Therefore, this system may help to reduce internal and external collision of instruments associated with laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery. Herein, we describe the initial clinical experience with a magnetically anchored camera system used during laparoscopic nephrectomy and appendectomy in two human patients. METHODS: Two separate cases were performed using a single-incision working port with the addition of a magnetically anchored camera that was controlled externally with a magnet. RESULTS: Surgery was successful in both cases. Nephrectomy was completed in 120 min with 150 ml estimated blood loss (EBL) and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 2. Appendectomy was successfully completed in 55 min with EBL of 10 ml and the patient was discharged home the following morning. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a MAGS camera results in fewer instrument collisions, improves surgical working space, and provides an image comparable to that in standard laparoscopy.
“Single-port, single-operator-light endoscopic robot-assisted laparoscopic urology: pilot study in a pig model.”
Crouzet, S., G. P. Haber, et al. (2009).
OBJECTIVES To present our initial operative experience in which single-port-light endoscopic robot-assisted reconstructive and extirpative urological surgery was performed by one surgeon, using a pig model. MATERIALS AND METHODS This pilot study was conducted in male farm pigs to determine the feasibility and safety of single-port, single-surgeon urological surgery. All pigs had a general anaesthetic and were placed in the flank position. A 2-cm umbilical incision was made, through which a single port was placed and pneumoperitoneum obtained. An operative laparoscope was introduced and securely held using a novel low-profile robot under foot and/or voice control. Using articulating instruments, each pig had bilateral reconstructive and extirpative renal surgery. Salient intraoperative and postmortem data were recorded. Results were analysed statistically to determine if outcomes improved with surgeon experience. RESULTS Five male farm pigs underwent bilateral partial nephrectomy and bilateral pyeloplasty before a completion bilateral radical nephrectomy. There were no intraoperative complications and there was no need for additional ports to be placed. The mean (range) operative duration for partial nephrectomy, pyeloplasty, and nephrectomy were 120 (100-150), 110 (95-130) and 20 (15-30) min, respectively. The mean (range) estimated blood loss for all procedures was 240 (200-280) mL. The preparation time decreased with increasing number of cases (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS The combination of a single-port, a robotic endoscope holder and articulated instruments operated by one surgeon is feasible. With a single-port access, the robot allows more room to the surgeon than an assistant.
“Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES).”
Dallemagne, B. and S. Perretta (2009).
Endoscopy 41(10): 895-897.
“Pure ‘natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery’ for transvaginal nephrectomy in the porcine model.”
Haber, G. P., S. Brethauer, et al. (2009).
BJU Int 104(9): 1260-1264.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the technical feasibility and reproducibility of pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) transvaginal nephrectomy using NOTES-specific instrumentation, with no transabdominal assistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five female farm pigs (mean weight 45 kg) had a right NOTES nephrectomy, using a single-channel gastroscope in the first three pigs and a dual-channel gastroscope in the remaining two. The peritoneal cavity was accessed through the posterior fornix of the vagina. Dissection was started at the lower pole of the kidney, and the ureter was retracted laterally and followed towards the hilum. An XL articulated 60 cm endo-GIA stapler (US Surgical, Norwalk, CO, USA), inserted transvaginally via a separate vaginal incision, was used for tissue retraction and renal hilar transection. The kidney was freed, entrapped in an impermeable sac, and extracted intact transvaginally. RESULTS: All five procedures were successful with no addition of a transabdominal laparoscopic port or open conversion. The total operative duration decreased from 200 min in the first pig to 60 min in the last (mean 113 min); the mean blood loss was <50 mL, the mean kidney length was 13.9 cm and the weight was 142 g. There were no intraoperative complications; at autopsy, there was no pelvic or bowel injury. CONCLUSIONS: Pure NOTES transvaginal nephrectomy is feasible in the porcine model. It has the potential of a less morbid approach, providing truly scar-less surgery. Further development of instrumentation is necessary.
“Transgastric and transperineal natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) in an appendectomy test bed.”
Jayaraman, S. and C. M. Schlachta (2009).
Surgical Innovation 16(3): 223-227.
Introduction. Our purpose was to establish a NOTES appendectomy test bed to evaluate whether the transgastric or transperineal (transvaginal) approach is most efficient. Methods. Using the uterine horns of female pigs as a model for appendectomy, 18 NOTES appendectomies were performed in 2 arms: 9 transgastric and 9 transvaginal. The primary outcome was mean total operative time for each technique excluding access closure. Secondary outcomes were peritoneal access and resection times. Means were compared using Student’s t-test. Results. Transgastric cases were faster than transperineal (46.5 ± 14.5 vs 60.0 ± 20.2 minutes, P = .02). Most of the improvement in transgastric times was due to faster resection (37.9 ± 17.4 vs 51.3 ± 16.5 minutes, P = .03). Neither approach was faster for peritoneal access (8.2 ± 3.4 vs 8.3 ± 4.5 minutes, nonsignificant). A significant learning curve was not demonstrated for the transgastric approach (53.0 vs 40.3 minutes, nonsignificant). A significant learning curve was demonstrated for the transperineal approach (76.0 vs 46.7 minutes, P = .02). Transperineal times improved over the study and approached transgastric; however, the last three transgastric cases were still significantly faster than the last three transperineal (40.3 vs 46.7 minutes, P = .02). No complications occurred in either group. Conclusions. The transgastric as compared with transperineal approach to NOTES appendectomy resulted in improved operative time in this model. The transperineal approach demonstrated a significant learning curve with operative times between techniques converging over time. This NOTES appendectomy test bed is suitable for evaluating NOTES innovations.
“Recent advances of robotic surgery and single port laparoscopy in gynecologic oncology.”
Jung, Y. W., S. W. Kim, et al. (2009).
J Gynecol Oncol 20(3): 137-144.
Two innovative approaches in minimally invasive surgery that have been introduced recently are the da Vinci robotic platform and single port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS). Robotic surgery has many advantages such as 3-dimensional view, the wrist like motion of the robotic arm and ergonomically comfortable position for the surgeon. Numerous literatures have demonstrated the feasibility of robotic surgery in gynecologic oncology. However, further research should be performed to demonstrate the superiority of robotic surgery compared to conventional laparoscopy. Additionally, cost reduction of robotic surgery is needed to adopt robotic surgery into gynecologic oncology worldwide. SPLS has several possible benefits including reduced operative complications, reduced postoperative pain, and better cosmetic results compared to conventional laparoscopy. Although several authors have indicated that SPLS is a feasible approach for gynecologic surgery, there have been few reports demonstrating the potential advantages over conventional laparoscopy. Moreover, technical difficulties of SPLS still exist. Therefore, the advantages of a single port approach compared to conventional laparoscope should be evaluated with comparative study, and further technologic development for SPLS is also needed. These two progressive technologies take the lead in the development of MIS and further studies should be performed to evaluate the benefits of robot surgery and SPLS.
“Gasless single-port access endoscopic surgery in urology: Minimum incision endoscopic surgery, MIES: Review Article.”
Kihara, K., S. Kawakami, et al. (2009).
International Journal of Urology 16(10): 791-800.
Minimum incision endoscopic surgery (MIES) is a gasless, single-port access, cost-effective, and minimally invasive surgery that has been in development since the late 1990s. Use of MIES has steadily increased in Japan and Asia and has been introduced into Europe and the USA. In 2006, MIES was certified by the Japanese government as an advanced surgery and since 2008 it has been covered by the Japanese universal health insurance system as a new surgical technique. Briefly, MIES involves an initial minimum incision (a single port) that permits extraction of the target specimen. A wide working space through the port is then made by separating the anatomical plane extraperitoneally. This is maintained with special retractors instead of gas insufflation. All instruments including an endoscope are inserted through the port and the operation is completed. The size of the port can be tailored to the situation if necessary, which contributes to preclusion of patient selection. The procedure uses only two disposable devices that are inexpensive, resulting in low equipment costs. Surgeons have the benefits of magnified vision through endoscopy as well as stereovision and panoramic vision of naked eyes through the port, which reduces the technical demands of the procedure. Techniques for two basic MIES procedures allow MIES to be performed for most urological organs and in extraordinary cases by their modifications. Thus, the MIES system permits minimally invasive surgery without use of CO2 gas, which is ideal from medical, environmental and economic perspectives, is cost-effective and minimizes patient selection. © 2009 The Japanese Urological Association.
“Video. Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery with a miniature in vivo surgical robot.”
Lehman, A. C., J. Dumpert, et al. (2009).
Surgical Endoscopy 23(7): 1649.
BACKGROUND: The application of flexible endoscopy tools for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is constrained due to limitations in dexterity, instrument insertion, navigation, visualization, and retraction. Miniature endolumenal robots can mitigate these constraints by providing a stable platform for visualization and dexterous manipulation. This video demonstrates the feasibility of using an endolumenal miniature robot to improve vision and to apply off-axis forces for task assistance in NOTES procedures. METHODS: A two-armed miniature in vivo robot has been developed for NOTES. The robot is remotely controlled, has on-board cameras for guidance, and grasper and cautery end effectors for manipulation. Two basic configurations of the robot allow for flexibility during insertion and rigidity for visualization and tissue manipulation. Embedded magnets in the body of the robot and in an exterior surgical console are used for attaching the robot to the interior abdominal wall. This enables the surgeon to arbitrarily position the robot throughout a procedure. RESULTS: The visualization and task assistance capabilities of the miniature robot were demonstrated in a nonsurvivable NOTES procedure in a porcine model. An endoscope was used to create a transgastric incision and advance an overtube into the peritoneal cavity. The robot was then inserted through the overtube and into the peritoneal cavity using an endoscope. The surgeon successfully used the robot to explore the peritoneum and perform small-bowel dissection. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated the feasibility of inserting an endolumenal robot per os. Once deployed, the robot provided visualization and dexterous capabilities from multiple orientations. Further miniaturization and increased dexterity will enhance future capabilities.
“Robotic-assisted single-incision right colectomy: early experience.”
Ostrowitz, M. B., D. Eschete, et al. (2009).
Int J Med Robot.
BACKGROUND: Application of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is increasing across surgical disciplines. In addition to the possibility of decreased postoperative pain, LESS offers better cosmesis with virtually ‘scarless’ surgeries, while avoiding the increased costs and complexity of natural orifice surgery. Instrument conflict minimization often requires the crossing of articulating instruments, which we believe can be more intuitively facilitated using the daVinci-S((R)) robotic system. We describe our early experience with three robotic single-incision right hemicolectomies. METHODS: Three robotic single-incision right hemicolectomies were performed using the daVinci-S robotic system, utilizing a single 4 cm incision through or around the umbilicus. The procedure was performed using three robotic arms, a 12 mm camera and two 8 mm robotic ports. A medial to lateral approach was used and an extracorporeal resection and anastomosis was performed after undocking the robot. RESULTS: There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Average operative time was 152 min. The first case was converted to non-robotic single-incision right hemicolectomy during mobilization of the ascending colon, due to uncontrollable air leakage around the ports. The second and third cases were successfully completed without air loss by purse-stringing sutures around each individual port and the use of the SILS() port, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic-assisted single-incision right hemicolectomy can be successfully and safely performed using the daVinci-S robotic system. Several techniques may be employed to prevent the loss of pneumoperitoneum. We believe right hemicolectomy lends itself to single-site surgery because specimen extraction requires a 4 cm incision and may confer patient benefit, with decreased postoperative pain and improved cosmesis. By crossing the robotic instruments and reassigning control of the arms, the robot represents a means to help perform these procedures safely by allowing them to be performed in a more intuitive fashion. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
“Women’s positive perception of transvaginal NOTES surgery.”
Peterson, C. Y., S. Ramamoorthy, et al. (2009).
Surgical Endoscopy 23(8): 1770-1774.
BACKGROUND: Two decades ago, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) was introduced and led to a revolution in modern surgery. Currently MIS procedures are the standard of care for many surgical interventions and patients often seek out surgeons with special training in MIS. Today, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) appears to be on the threshold of another such revolution. We surmise that its advantages are similar to those of other MIS procedures, but there are no associated abdominal wall complications as there are no abdominal incisions. To date, there is no data evaluating women’s perceptions of such a procedure and their willingness to consent to this type of surgical approach. METHODS: We surveyed 100 women who were given a written description of MIS and NOTES surgery along with a 10-question survey exploring their concerns and opinions regarding transvaginal surgery. RESULTS: The majority of women (68%) indicated that they would want a transvaginal procedure in the future because of decreased risk of hernia and decreased operative pain (90 and 93%, respectively), while only 39% were concerned with the improved cosmesis of NOTES surgery. Of the women polled, nulliparous women and those under age 45 years were significantly more often concerned with how transvaginal surgery may affect healthy sexual life and fertility issues (p < 0.05). Of the women who would not prefer transvaginal surgery, a significant number indicated concerns over infectious issues (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that there is considerable public interest in NOTES surgery and women would be receptive to this new surgical technique. Our study highlights a strong need for early reporting of outcomes data to enlighten ourselves, and our patients, about this exciting new technology.
“Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery in urology: Is robotics the missing link?”
Rané, A., G. Y. Tan, et al. (2009).
BJU International 104(8): 1041-1043.
“Single-port urological surgery: single-center experience with the first 100 cases.”
White, W. M., G. P. Haber, et al. (2009).
Urology 74(4): 801-804.
OBJECTIVES: To present perioperative outcomes in an observational cohort of patients who underwent LaparoEndoscopic Single Site (LESS) surgery at a single academic center. METHODS: A prospective study was performed to evaluate patient outcomes after LESS urologic surgery. Demographic data including age, body mass index, operative time, estimated blood loss, operative indications, complications, and postoperative Visual Analog Pain Scale scores were accrued. Patients were followed postoperatively for evidence of adverse events. RESULTS: Between September 2007 and February 2009, 100 patients underwent LESS urologic surgery. Specifically, 74 patients underwent LESS renal surgery (cryoablation, 8; partial nephrectomy, 15; metastectomy, 1; renal biopsy, 1; simple nephrectomy, 7; radical nephrectomy, 6; cyst decortication, 2; nephroureterectomy, 7; donor nephrectomy, 19; and dismembered pyeloplasty, 8) and 26 patients underwent LESS pelvic surgery (varicocelectomy, 3; radical prostatectomy, 6; radical cystectomy, 3; sacral colpopexy, 13; and ureteral reimplant, 1). Mean patient age was 54 years. Mean body mass index was 26.2 kg/m(2). Mean operative time was 199 minutes. Mean estimated blood loss was 136 mL. No intraoperative complications occurred. Six patients required conversion to standard laparoscopy. Mean length of hospitalization was 3 days. Mean Visual Analog Pain Scale score at discharge was 1.5/10. At a mean follow-up of 11 months, 9 Clavien Grade II (transfusion, 7; urinary tract infection, 1; deep vein thrombosis, 1) and 2 Clavien Grade IIIb (recto-urethral fistula, 1; angioembolization, 1) surgical complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, LESS urologic surgery is feasible, offers improved cosmesis, and may offer decreased pain. Complications are consistent with the published data. Whether LESS urologic surgery is superior in comparison with standard laparoscopy is currently speculative.