“Robotic pediatric urology.”
Casale, P. (2009).
Current Urology Reports 10(2): 115-118.
Robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery is penetrating pediatric urology. The freedom afforded by the “surgical actuators” has led to the expanding adoption of robotics, and it is unlikely that much of laparoscopy will not trend toward some iteration of robotic influence. The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) provides delicate telemanipulation, coalesced with three-dimensional visualization and superior magnification. It has bridged the gap between laparoscopy and open surgery. Nonetheless, a confident understanding of pure laparoscopy is paramount in the event that mechanical malfunction is experienced. Robotic pediatric urologic procedures such as pyeloplasty, ureteral reimplantation, abdominal testis surgery, and partial or total nephrectomy with or without ureteral stump removal are routinely performed at select centers offering robotic expertise. Complex reconstructive surgeries such as appendicovesicostomy, antegrade continent enema creation, and augmentation cystoplasty can be performed but are still in their infancy. © 2009 Current Medicine Group, LLC References and Recommended Reading.
“The University of Chicago technique of complete intracorporeal pediatric robotic-assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty and Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy.”
Gundeti, M. S., S. S. Acharya, et al. (2009).
Journal of Robotic Surgery: 1-5.
We present the University of Chicago technique for complete intracorporeal robotic-assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty and Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy. The operative steps of the open procedure were replicated laparoscopically using robotic assistance. Initially, five transperitoneal laparoscopic ports are placed prior to docking the da Vinci S robotic system. A 20 cm ileal segment is isolated, and the gastrointestinal anastomosis is performed in an end-to-end fashion using intracorporeal suturing. The appendix is anastomosed to the right posterior wall of the bladder over an 8F feeding tube in an extravesical fashion. Then, the bladder is incised in a coronal plane, and the simple detubularized ileal on-lay patch is anastomosed to the posterior and anterior walls of the bladder. A suprapubic catheter and pelvic drain are placed. Finally, the Mitrofanoff stoma is then fashioned. Cystography is done at 4 weeks postoperatively. This report suggests that robotic-assisted ileocystoplasty and appendicovesicostomy is feasible. A reasonable outcome with early recovery, resumption of normal activities, and excellent cosmesis can be achieved in select patients. A large case series, however, is necessary to determine whether a robotic-assisted approach provides any significant advantages over conventional open procedures. © 2009 Springer-Verlag London Ltd.
“Robot-assisted laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy for proximal ureteral obstructions in children.”
Smith, K. M., D. Shrivastava, et al. (2009).
Journal of Pediatric Urology.
Objective: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction is a common presentation in the pediatric population, but proximal ureteral obstructions are rare. In this setting, robot-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) offers a minimally invasive option to open or traditional laparoscopic repair. The present study demonstrates successful RAL in two children with proximal ureteral obstructions: one with a right retrocaval ureter and one with a left ureter entrapped between two lower-pole crossing vessels. Method: After retrograde placement of a double-J ureteral stent, the child was secured in a lateral decubitus position exposing the affected side. A three-port RAL system was used to dissect free the obstructed ureter. A spatulated watertight ureteroureterostomy was then fashioned after transposition of the ureter into an anatomic position. Sutures and free instruments were passed into the peritoneal cavity via the 5-mm instrument ports, thus obviating the need for a separate assistant port. Results: RAL provided for crisp visualization, meticulous dissection, and precise approximation of the reconstructed ureter. In both patients, blood loss was negligible, narcotic use was minimal, and length of stay was roughly 30 h. Follow-up imaging at 1 month showed excellent hydronephrosis resolution for both reconstructions. Conclusion: These two cases demonstrate the feasibility of RAL for proximal ureteral anomalies in the pediatric population. © 2009 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company.