“Effectiveness and Safety of Total Endoscopic Left Internal Mammary Artery Bypass Graft to the Left Anterior Descending Artery.”
Bonatti, J., T. Schachner, et al. (2009).
American Journal of Cardiology 104(12): 1684-1688.
Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has become a feasible option using robotic technology and remote access perfusion techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the progression of the procedure’s performance in the currently largest single-center series of arrested-heart totally endoscopic CABG. From 2001 to 2007, arrested-heart totally endoscopic CABG was performed in 100 patients (median age 59 years, range 46 to 70; 81 men, 19 women). All patients received left internal mammary artery grafts to the left anterior descending artery using the da Vinci Surgical System. Remote-access femoral perfusion and aortic balloon endo-occlusion were used in all patients. The series was divided into 4 phases: phase 1 (patients 1 to 25), phase 2 (patients 26 to 50), phase 3 (patients 51 to 75), and phase 4 (patients 76 to 100). The conversion rates to larger thoracic incisions were 7 of 25 (28%) in phase 1, 2 of 25 (8%) in phase 2, 1 of 25 (4%) in phase 3, and 1 of 25 (4%) in phase 4 (p = 0.018). Operative times and hospital stays decreased significantly with each subsequent phase, and clinical outcome showed corresponding improvements. There was no perioperative mortality. For the whole patient series, 5-year postoperative survival, freedom from angina, and freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebral events were 100%, 91%, and 89%, respectively. In conclusion, after an initial steep learning curve, completely endoscopic left internal mammary artery-to-left anterior descending CABG can be performed safely, with low conversion rates. The learning curve for operative times and improvements in clinical outcome continued even at 100 procedures. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
“Combined PCI and minimally invasive heart valve surgery for high-risk patients.”
Byrne, J. G., R. Umakanthan, et al. (2009).
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine 11(6): 492-498.
Opinion statement: Combined coronary artery valvular heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult patient population. The standard treatment for such disease has been open heart surgery in which coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed concurrently with valve surgery using a median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. With the increasing complexity of patients referred to surgery, some patients may prove to be poor surgical candidates for combined valve and CABG surgery. In certain selected patients who fall into this category, valve surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been considered a feasible alternative. Conventionally, valve surgery is performed in the cardiac surgical operating room, whereas PCI is carried out in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Separation of these two procedural suites has presented a logistic limitation because it impedes the concomitant performance of both procedures in one setting. Hence, PCI and valve surgery usually have been performed as a “two-stage” procedure in two different operative suites, with the procedures being separated by hours, days, or weeks. Technologic advancements have made possible the construction of a “hybrid” procedural suite that combines the facilities of a cardiac surgical operating room with those of a cardiac catheterization laboratory. This design has enabled the concept of “one-stage” or “one-stop” PCI and valve surgery, allowing both procedures to be performed in a hybrid suite in one setting, separated by minutes. The advantages of such a method could prove to be multifold by enabling a less invasive surgical approach and improving logistics, patient satisfaction, and outcomes in selected patients. © 2009 Current Medicine Group, LLC.
“Is robotic mitral valve repair a reproducible approach?”
Cheng, W., G. P. Fontana, et al. (2009).
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to review the surgical outcomes of our initial 120 robotic mitral valve repairs from June 2005 through April 2009. METHODS: The initial 74 repairs were performed with the first-generation da Vinci robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunny Vale, Calif), and the last 46 were performed with the da Vinci Si HD model. All patients received an annuloplasty band and 1 or more of the following: leaflet resection; annuloplasty; basal chord transposition, polytetrafluoroethylene neochordal replacement, or both; and edge-to-edge repair. RESULTS: The overall mean age was 58.4 +/- 10.5 years, and 64% were male. There was 1 (0.8%) hospital mortality. Five patients required mitral valve replacement for a failed repair. Another patient had mitral valve rerepair on postoperative day 2. Except for 2 early reoperations for postoperative bleeding, all of the complications and failed repairs requiring operative revision occurred with the original robot. Postdischarge transthoracic echocardiographic follow-up was available on 107 (93%) of 115 patients, with a median follow-up of 321 days. None to mild mitral regurgitation was seen in 102 (89%) patients, moderate mitral regurgitation was seen in 9 (8.4%) patients, and severe mitral regurgitation was seen in 3 (2.8%), with 1 patient undergoing mitral valve replacement and 2 patients being medically managed. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of complications and all the repeat operations for failed mitral valve repair occurred with the older-model da Vinci robot. The newer da Vinci Si HD system, with the addition of an adjustable left atrial roof retractor, improves mitral valve exposure, enhancing the surgeon’s ability to repair and test the valve. We have progressed to successful repair of all types of degenerative mitral valve pathology and have found the approach reproducible.
“Current State of Integrated “Hybrid” Coronary Revascularization.”
DeRose, J. J. (2009).
Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 21(3): 229-236.
The long-term benefits of a left internal mammary artery bypass graft to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) have been well described. As the patient population with multivessel coronary artery disease has grown older with greater comorbidities, less invasive approaches to revascularization have been explored. The use of drug-eluting stents has minimized the morbidity of revascularization but has failed to match the durability of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) is the planned use of minimally invasive surgical techniques for left internal mammary artery-LAD grafting and the use of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for non-LAD target revascularization. The optimal timing and order of revascularization in HCR remains unclear. Novel operating suites with surgical and fluoroscopic capabilities have begun to support the performance of simultaneous minimally invasive CABG and PCI. The role of HCR compared to both PCI and conventional CABG awaits the results of ongoing randomized clinical trials. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
“An alternative method for cardioplegia delivery during totally endoscopic robotic surgery.”
Guden, M., A. A. Korkmaz, et al. (2009).
Journal of Cardiac Surgery 24(6): 661-663.
The optimal technique for myocardial protection and cardioplegia delivery during totally endoscopic robotic surgery is still under evolution. Cardioplegia delivery with endovascular clamping of the aorta is a common method used for this purpose but has several disadvantages and may lead to serious complications. Here we describe an alternative cardioplegia delivery method during totally endoscopic atrial septal defect closure and mitral valve repair. The method using a transthoracic aortic clamp and an antegrade cardioplegia cannula without any thoracotomy seems to be a safe and reproducible technique, which may enhance myocardial protection and prevent some of the complications of the endoclamp technique during robotically assisted cardiac surgery. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
“Results of 141 Consecutive Minimally Invasive Tricuspid Valve Operations: An 11-Year Experience.”
Lee, T. C., B. Desai, et al. (2009).
Annals of Thoracic Surgery 88(6): 1845-1850.
Background: Reports of minimally invasive tricuspid valve operations are rare. We reviewed our experience and results of tricuspid valve operation using mini-thoracotomy during an 11-year period. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 141) undergoing tricuspid valve operation using mini-thoracotomy were retrospectively analyzed. Access was through a 6-cm right thoracotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted by means of the femoral artery (n = 16) or ascending aorta (n = 125) with augmented venous return. In most cases, vacuum assist without caval occlusion and snaring the cavae was used to minimize mediastinal dissection. In all cases, the tricuspid valve operation was done with the heart unclamped, and the heart either beating or fibrillating. Results: Seventy-three percent (103 of 141 patients) of the patients underwent combined mitral and tricuspid valve operations. The tricuspid valve was repaired instead of being replaced in 61% (86 of 141 patients). Previous sternotomy was present in 49% (69 of 141 patients). The average patient age was 64 years. Conversion rate to median sternotomy was only 3% (4 of 141 patients). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 216 minutes. Thirty-day mortality was 2.1% (3 of 141 patients). Stroke occurred in 2.8% (4 of 141 patients), and reexploration for bleeding occurred in 5.6% (8 of 141 patients). The stroke rate was 3 of 16 patients (18.8%) using mini-thoracotomy through femoral cannulation versus 1 of 125 patients (0.8%) through aortic cannulation (p = 0.005). Conclusions: In this largest reported series of patients undergoing tricuspid valve operation, mini-thoracotomy provides excellent short-term morbidity and mortality in these high-risk patients while avoiding redo sternotomy with a low conversion rate. Mini-thoracotomy with aortic cannulation is an attractive alternative approach to the tricuspid valve, particularly in patients with previous sternotomy. © 2009 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
“Current results of minimally invasive surgical ablation for isolated atrial fibrillation.”
Mack, M. J. (2009).
Heart Rhythm 6(12 SUPPL.).
The Cox maze surgical ablation operation is a highly effective treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation, but adoption has been limited by procedure complexity and invasiveness. Minimally invasive approaches using nonsternotomy limited access and eliminating cardiopulmonary bypass have been developed. All published series of minimally invasive surgical ablation for isolated, atrial fibrillation were reviewed. Series were analyzed for method of access, energy source, procedure success, and complications. Outcomes were compiled based on type of atrial fibrillation, method and length of follow-up, and freedom from atrial fibrillation with and without antiarrhythmic drugs. There are 14 published series with outcomes reported in 604 unique patients. Most procedures are performed through bilateral minithoracotomies with video assistance, although in later series a totally thoracoscopic approach is more commonly used. Bipolar radiofrequency is the predominant energy source used, and bilateral pulmonary vein isolation the most common lesion set, with some reports adding ganglionic plexi ablation and more extensive ablation lines. Approximately 53% of the procedures were performed for paroxysmal and 47% for persistent/long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. Overall freedom from atrial fibrillation at 6-12 months is 84% (59%-91%), with 89% (79%-100%) in paroxysmal and 62% (25%-87%) in persistent/long-standing persistent patients. Overall freedom from atrial fibrillation off of antiarrhythmic drugs is 65% (57%-87%). Results approximating those of the Cox maze procedure are achieved with minimally invasive surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Further developments are necessary to further simplify and standardize the procedure, to replicate the results in larger series from more centers, to standardize the reporting of results, and to define a more effective procedure for persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. © 2009 Heart Rhythm Society.
“Beating-heart totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting: Report of a case.”
Nishida, S., G. Watanabe, et al. (2010).
Surg Today 40(1): 57-59.
This case report presents beating-heart totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB) for single-vessel coronary artery disease. A 72-year-old man with isolated left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery disease was considered eligible for TECAB. Left internal thoracic artery (LITA) mobilization and subsequent off-pump revascularization applying the LITA to the LAD in a closed chest environment was performed using the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA, USA). The LITA was first harvested completely in a totally skeletonized fashion through three incisions 1-2 cm long in the left thoracic wall. The LAD was immobilized with the aid of a heart stabilizer. The LITA was then anastomosed to the LAD with 10 interrupted sutures of a Nitinol self-closing S15 U-clip device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) on the beating heart without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The time acquired to perform anastomosis was 20 min, and the total operative time was 5 h 34 min. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged 5 days after the operation. Beating-heart TECAB was successfully performed for this patient with single-vessel LAD disease. This approach may be an evolutionary step toward beating-heart multivessel TECAB.
“An unexpected cause of poor venous drainage during robotic mitral valve repair.”
Sareyyupoglu, B., R. M. Suri, et al. (2010).
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 10(1): 146-147.
We present a case with an unusual cause of poor venous drainage during cardiopulmonary bypass for robotic-assisted mitral valve repair.
“Minimally invasive versus conventional mitral valve surgery: A propensity-matched comparison.”
Svensson, L. G., F. A. Atik, et al. (2009).
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.
Objective: Less invasive approaches to mitral valve surgery are increasingly used for improved cosmesis; however, few studies have investigated their effect on outcome. We sought to compare these minimally invasive approaches fairly with conventional full sternotomy by using propensity-matching methods. Methods: From January 1995 to January 2004, 2124 patients underwent isolated mitral valve surgery through a minimally invasive approach, and 1047 underwent isolated mitral valve surgery through a conventional sternotomy. Because there were important differences in patient characteristics, a propensity score based on 42 factors was used to obtain 590 well-matched patient pairs (56% of cases). Results: In-hospital mortality was similar for propensity-matched patients: 0.17% (1/590) for those undergoing minimally invasive surgery and 0.85% (5/590) for those undergoing conventional surgery (P = .2). Occurrences of stroke (P = .8), renal failure (P > .9), myocardial infarction (P = .7), and infection (P = .8) were also similar. However, 24-hour mediastinal drainage was less after minimally invasive surgery (median, 250 vs 350 mL; P < .0001), and fewer patients received transfusions (30% vs 37%, P = .01). More patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery were extubated in the operating room (18% vs 5.7%, P < .0001), and postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second was higher. Early after operation, pain scores were lower (P < .0001) after minimally invasive surgery. Conclusion: Within that portion of the spectrum of mitral valve surgery in which propensity matching was possible, minimally invasive mitral valve surgery had cosmetic, blood product use, respiratory, and pain advantages over conventional surgery, and no apparent detriments. Mortality and morbidity for robotic and percutaneous procedures should be compared with these minimally invasive outcomes. © 2009 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery.
“Enabling Technology for Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.”
Vassiliades Jr, T. (2009).
Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 21(3): 237-244.
Over the past 8 years, new techniques and perhaps more significantly new technology have expanded the possibilities for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. In this section, we review 3 important and potentially enabling technologies: (1) robotics, (2) anastomotic connectors, and (3) the expanding role of imaging in the context of combined operating room/catheterization laboratories (hybrid suites). © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.